Kaplan MCAT General Chemistry Review by Kaplan

Kaplan MCAT General Chemistry Review by Kaplan

Author:Kaplan [Kaplan]
Language: eng
Format: epub
Publisher: Kaplan Test Prep
Published: 2010-08-03T04:00:00+00:00

Figure 8.7

Curves such as this show the different compositions of the liquid phase and the vapor phase above a solution for different temperatures. The upper curve is the composition of the vapor, while the lower curve is that of the liquid. It is this difference in composition that forms the basis of distillation, an important separation technique in organic chemistry. For example, if we were to start with a mixture of A and B at a proportion of 40 percent A and 60 percent B and heat it to that solution’s boiling point (85°C), the resulting vapor would not have the same composition as the liquid solution because the two compounds have different volatilities. Compound B is more volatile because it has the lower boiling point. Therefore, vapor B should be in larger proportion to vapor A, compared to the proportion of B to A in the liquid phase. Because the boiling point temperature for this 60–40 mixture is 85°C, the vapor will also be at 85°C. At this temperature, we can tell from the graph that the vapor composition will be 30 percent A and 70 percent B. Indeed, the proportion of the more volatile compound, in this case compound B, has been enhanced. Repeated rounds of boiling (vaporization) and condensation will ultimately yield a pure sample of compound B.

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